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Artificial Intelligence (AI) Introduction !!

Artificial Intelligence & Machine Learning

What is Artificial Intelligence (AI)?

We know Intelligence is “the capacity to acquire and apply knowledge.” And Artificial Intelligence – is the imitation of intelligence by a machine.

In simple terms – Artificial Intelligence is broad branch of Computer Science concerned with building smart Machines which can perform tasks that typically require human intelligence.

And with this, it also includes the ability to benefit from past experience, act purposefully, solve problems, and adapt to new situations

Definition of Artificial Intelligence

Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a form of Computer Science used to create Intelligent Machines that can Recognize Human Speech, Objects, Can Learn, Plan and Solve Problems like Humans

AI (Artificial Intelligence) can also be defined as the Development of Machines that are capable of performing tasks that normally require human intelligence, such as Decision Making, Object Recognition, Solving Complex problems and so on

Artificial Intelligence (AI) History

Well everyone is talking about Artificial Intelligence (AI) nowadays but this is not something new !!

The roots of modern Artificial Intelligence or AI, can be traced back to the classical philosophers of Greece, and their efforts to model human thinking as a system of symbols. More recently, in the 1940s, a school of thought called “Connectionism” was developed to study the process of thinking.

Alan Turing in 1950 wrote a paper suggesting how to test a “thinking” machine and he believed if a machine could carry on a conversation by way of a teleprinter, imitating a human with no noticeable differences, the machine could be described as thinking.

And his paper was followed in 1952 by the Hodgkin-Huxley model of the brain as neurons forming an electrical network, with individual neurons firing in all-or-nothing (on/off) pulses.

These events, at a conference sponsored by Dartmouth College in 1956, in Hanover, New Hampshire, where the term “artificial intelligence” was coined.

Though the term artificial intelligence was coined in 1956, AI has become more popular today thanks to increased data volumes, advanced algorithms, and improvements in computing power and storage

John McCarthy first coined the term Artificial Intelligence in the year 1956

And he defined Artificial Intelligence as – the Science and Engineering of making Intelligent Machines

Evolution of Artificial Intelligence (AI)

Milestones of Artificial Intelligence
Milestones of AI

Birth of Artificial Intelligence (1950-1956)

In Year 1950 – Alan Turing proposed the Turing test to exhibit the Intelligent behaviour of the machines

Year 1951 – First AI based program was written

Year 1955 – An Allen Newell and Herbert A. Simon created the “first artificial intelligence program “Which was named as “Logic Theorist”. This program had proved 38 of 52 Mathematics theorems, and find new and more elegant proofs for some theorems.

And in Year 1956 – The word “Artificial Intelligence” was first adopted by American Computer scientist John McCarthy at the Dartmouth Conference. For the first time, AI coined as an academic field.

And, the enthusiasm for AI was very high at that time with the invention of high-level computer languages such as FORTRAN, LISP, or COBOL

Early enthusiasm & the Golden Years of AI (1956-1974)

Year 1959 – MIT AI lab was setup

Year 1961 – first robot was introduced in GM’s assembly line

Year 1964 – first demonstration of an AI program which understands Natural Language

Year 1966 – The researchers emphasized developing algorithms which can solve mathematical problems. Joseph Weizenbaum created the first chatbot in 1966, which was named as ELIZA.

Year 1974 – first autonomous vehicle was developed at Stanford university

Year 1972 – The first intelligent humanoid robot was built in Japan which was named as WABOT-1.

Artificial Intelligence Winter (1974-1980)

The duration between 1974-1980 witnessed many false starts and dead-ends encourages the government to seize the funds and leave AI in the cold and this translates into lack of interest and publicity on artificial intelligence was decreased.

So, this era of AI (winter) refers to the time period where computer scientist dealt with a severe shortage of funding from government for AI researches.

Emergence & Evolution of Intelligent agents (1993-2011)

In the Year 1997 – In the year 1997, IBM Deep Blue beats world chess champion, Gary Kasparov, and became the first computer to beat a world chess champion.

Year 1999 – Sony introduces IBOV and at the same year MIT AI Lab’s first emotional AI is demonstrated

Year 2002 – for the first time, AI entered the home in the form of Roomba, a vacuum cleaner.

Year 2004 – DARPA announces the first autonomous vehicle challenge

Year 2006 – AI came in the Business world till the year 2006. Companies like Facebook, Twitter, and Netflix also started using AI.

Year 2009 – Google starts building a self-driving car

Next Big Leap of Artificial Intelligence into Deep learning, Big data and General Intelligence (2011-present)

In Year 2011 – IBM’s Question Answering Computer Watson wins the first place in very popular $1M prize television quiz show jeopardy. By winning this Watson proved that it could understand natural language and can solve tricky questions quickly.

Year 2012 – Google has launched an Android app feature “Google now”, which was able to provide information to the user as a prediction.

Year 2014 – Chatbot “Eugene Goostman” passes the infamous “Turing test” with third of judges believing Eugene is a human

Year 2017 – Google’s AI ALPHAGO beats world champion Ke Jie in the complex board game of GO, notable for its vast number (2 to 170) of possible positions

And in Year 2018 – The “Project Debater” from IBM debated on complex topics with two master debaters and also performed extremely well.

Going further, Google has demonstrated an AI program “Duplex” which was a virtual assistant and it had taken hairdresser appointment on call, and lady on other side didn’t notice that she was talking with the machine.

Now AI has advanced to a remarkable level and the concepts of Deep learning, big data, and data science are now trending like a boom.

And the big starworts companies like Google, Facebook, IBM, Amazon and TESLA are working with AI and creating amazing devices. So the future of Artificial Intelligence is very inspiring and will come with high intelligence

Categories of Artificial Intelligence you should know !!

1. Different Stages of AI

Here are three stages of Artificial Intelligence

Artificial Normal Intelligence (ANI)

Often known as Weak AI, ANI is the stage of Artificial Intelligence involving machines that may perform solely a narrowly outlined set of particular specified duties.

At this stage, the machine doesn’t possess any considering capability, it simply performs a set of pre-defined features.

And virtually all of the AI-based programs constructed until this date fall underneath the class of Weak AI.

Examples of Weak AI are Siri, Alexa, Self-driving automobiles, Alpha-Go, Sophia the humanoid, and so forth..

Artificial General Intelligence (AGI)

Commonly referred as Strong AI or Sturdy AI, AGI is the stage within the evolution of Artificial Intelligence whereby machines can possess the power to assume and make choices/decisions – basically can think and behave like human

There are presently no present examples of Sturdy AI, nevertheless, it’s believed that we’ll quickly be capable of create machines which might be as sensible as people

Artificial Super Intelligence (ASI)

Artificial Super Intelligence is the stage of AI when the aptitude of computer systems will surpass human beings.

ASI is presently a hypothetical scenario as depicted in motion pictures and science fiction books, the place machines have taken over the world.

So, these have been the completely different phases of intelligence {that a} machine can purchase. Now let’s perceive the varieties of AI, primarily based on their performance

2. Varieties or Types of AI

Here are four types of Artificial Intelligence that differ in their complexity of abilities:

Reactive Machines Artificial Intelligence

Reactive machines use previous data to draw conclusions for current decisions, such as a chess AI.

And, these AI contains machines that function solely primarily based on the current information, bearing in mind solely the present scenario.

Reactive AI machines can’t type inferences from the info to gauge their future actions. They will carry out a narrowed vary of pre-defined duties.

Limited or Restricted Memory AI

Just like the title suggests, Restricted Memory AI could make knowledgeable and improved choices by finding out the previous information from its memory.

Such an AI has a short-lived or a short lived reminiscence that can be utilized to retailer previous experiences and consider future actions

Self-driving automobiles are good examples of Limited Memory AI, which makes use of the info collected within the current previous to make instant choices.

For instance, self-driving automobiles use sensors to establish civilians crossing the highway, steep roads, site visitors indicators, and so forth to make higher driving choices. This helps to forestall any future accidents

Theory of Mind Artificial Intelligence (Advanced)

Theory of mind is something we haven’t reached yet, and deals with AI understanding that every entity has its own set of underlying concepts — such as motives, intentions and emotions.

Theory of Mind AI is a extra superior sort of artificial intelligence. This class of machines is purported to play a significant function in psychology.

One of these AI will focus primarily on emotional intelligence in order that human believes and ideas might be higher comprehended

Self-Aware Artificial Intelligence

Self-awareness is the final stage of AI, where an AI can not only understand others’ consciousness (theory of mind) but also has a concept of its own existence

So, let’s simply pray that we don’t attain the state of AI, the place machines have their very own consciousness and turn out to be self-aware.

One of these AI is somewhat far fetched given the current circumstances. Nonetheless, sooner or later, attaining a stage of superintelligence may be potential.

Geniuses like Elon Musk and Stephen Hawkings have persistently warned us in regards to the evolution of AI.

3. Domains or Branches of AI

Artificial Intelligence can be utilized to unravel real-world issues by implementing the next processes/strategies:

  1. Machine Learning
  2. Deep studying (Neural Networks)
  3. Natural Language Processing
  4. Robotics
  5. Expert Systems (Professional Programs)
  6. Fuzzy Logic
Branches of Artificial Intelligence
Branches of AI
Machine Learning

Machine Learning is a method where the target(goal) is defined and the steps to reach that target is learned by the machine itself by training (gaining experience). For example to identify a simple object such as an apple or orange.

The target is achieved not by explicitly specifying the details about it and coding it but it is just as we teach a child by showing multiple different pictures of it and therefore allowing the machine to define the steps to identify it like an apple or an orange

Deep Studying (Neural Networks)

Deep Studying is the method of implementing Neural Networks on excessive dimensional information to achieve insights and type options.

Deep Studying is a complicated area of Machine Studying that can be utilized to unravel extra superior issues.

Deep Studying is the logic behind the face verification algorithm on Fb, self-driving automobiles, digital assistants like Siri, Alexa and so forth.

Natural Language Processing (NLP)

Natural Language Processing is broadly defined as the automatic manipulation of natural language, like speech and text, by software.

One of the well-known examples of this is email spam detection as we can see how it has improved in our mail system

Fuzzy Logic

Fuzzy logic is a computing method primarily based on the ideas of “levels of fact” as an alternative of the standard fashionable pc logic i.e. boolean in nature

Fuzzy logic is used within the medical fields to unravel complicated issues that contain choice making. They’re additionally utilized in automated gearboxes, automobile atmosphere management and so forth.

Robotics

It is a field of engineering focused on the design and manufacturing of robots. Robots are often used to perform tasks that are difficult for humans to perform or perform consistently.

Examples include car assembly lines, in hospitals, office cleaner, serving foods, and preparing foods in hotels, patrolling farm areas and even as police officers.

Recently machine learning has been used to achieve certain good results in building robots that interact socially(Sophia)

Professional Programs (Expert Systems)

An knowledgeable system is an AI-based pc system that learns and reciprocates the decision-making capability of a human knowledgeable.

Professional programs use if-then logical notations to unravel complicated issues. They don’t depend on standard procedural programming.

Professional programs are primarily utilized in data administration, medical amenities, mortgage evaluation, virus detection, and so forth.

Top Artificial Intelligence companies?

Start-ups and legacy players alike are investing in AI technology. Some of the leaders include household names like:

  • Microsoft
  • Apple
  • Google (Deep Mind)
  • TESLA
  • Facebook

What is AI and When it is going to have an Impact ?

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